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10 Hollow Earth Theory Beliefs and Their Origins

by Adrian Sharp
fact checked by Rachel Jones

You’ve heard about flat earthers, but have you heard about the Hollow Earth theory? It’s a little more unlikely, but that’s what makes it so exciting.

For thousands of years, people have theorized the answers to the mysteries surrounding us. Ancient civilizations taught that beneath our feet was another world, the land of the dead, or the home of mythical beasts. So, what does the center of the earth really look like?

Some people believe that there’s literally nothing there at all. Whether it started as imaginative speculation or hidden truth, the Hollow Earth theory has piqued curiosity for centuries.

Hollow Earth theory suggests that Earth isn’t a “solid” cosmic sphere but rather a thick-shelled hollow sphere. While scientific evidence may not support these notions fully, the theory offers a fascinating exploration of what may lie beneath our feet. Today, we’re breaking down ten popular beliefs from this theory.

Related: 10 Bizarre Claims That Humans Didn’t Originate On Earth

10 Earth Has a Donut Shape

Ancient Aliens: The Hollow Earth Hypothesis (S8, E6) | History

Do you imagine Earth as a chocolate-frosted pastry with sprinkles? That’s kind of how this whole theory began. We’re exaggerating, of course, but the origins of the theory claim that Earth was a donut shape.

Officially, the Hollow Earth theory can be traced back to the imaginative speculations of early hollow Earth proponents. In 1692, British astronomer and mathematician Sir Edmond Halley wrote an article proposing that the earth could consist of concentric, hollow spheres with openings at the poles.

Since then, the theory has been expanded, evolving from a simple donut-shaped planet to a more complex, toroidal structure. This unique shape raises questions about Earth’s gravity, tectonic plate movements, and magnetic fields.

Hollow Earth theory advocates argue that Earth’s magnetic field, generated by the movement of the iron-rich outer core, could be explained by electromagnetic forces produced within the central cavity. They suggest that the donut shape allows for a self-sustaining magnetic dynamo effect, similar to how a current flows through a toroidal coil.

The donut shape may seem far-fetched, but so did the idea of a round Earth to people in 300 BC. This concept serves as a starting point for further exploration.

9 All Celestial Bodies Are Hollow


What’s interesting is that the Hollow Earth theory actually extends beyond Earth. These theorists believe that all celestial bodies, including Earth, are not solid. Instead, they possess vast, hollow spaces within them.

Expanding the Hollow Earth theory beyond our planet challenges conventional scientific understanding and offers a fascinating explanation behind cosmic anomalies.

The low density of some planets and moons in our solar system is seen as proof of this. For instance, when NASA measured Jupiter’s core density, it was 60-80% less dense than the outer layers.

Hollow Earth advocates claim that NASA’s own measurements prove these extraterrestrial bodies are hollow… but NASA disagrees. Their position is that the density change is due to the fact that it’s a gas giant, but the center is still a dense core. What do you think? Is Jupiter basically just a giant plastic Easter egg?

8 The Earth’s Crust Is Actually a Shell

Why Scientists Briefly Thought the Earth Was Hollow

Traditionally, we are taught that Earth’s crust is around 3 to 46 miles (4.8 to 74 kilometers) thick, with the mantle underneath. Hollow Earth theory, on the other hand, states that the inner and outer worlds are separated by a shell that is between 500 and 800 miles (804 to 1.287.5 kilometers) thick.

The idea that an 800-mile-thick shell encapsulates an inner world sounds completely crazy to most people. But in 1869, Cyrus Teed, a physician with an unhealthy amount of curiosity, had a “divine illumination” after being severely electrocuted. During this divine vision, God supposedly told him to interpret the Bible through the lens of his scientific knowledge, and that was exactly the result.

Teed’s interpretation, coupled with God’s sharing of all the secrets of the universe, resulted in the formation of his religion: Koreshan Universology. The core tenet of the church was cellular cosmogony.

Unlike other Hollow Earth theories, cellular cosmogony theorizes that humans live inside—rather than on the surface of—Earth and are held by centrifugal force, not gravity. Teed taught the universe exists inside this sphere, and that the sun is an electromagnetic battery-operated helix.

7 There Are Many Entrances

US Expedition to an Inner Earth Kingdom

Advocates of Hollow Earth argue that enormous openings exist at both poles leading to the inner world beneath the surface. Stories from past expeditions and people claiming to have visited the inner world speak of entrances several hundred miles wide. These descriptions propose they are big enough to accommodate large ships and aircraft.

And no, these aren’t just the entrance to Santa’s village. Hollow Earth enthusiasts assert that concealed gateways leading to the inner continent are scattered around the surface of Earth. Supposedly, there have been other entrances found in the following areas:

  • Kentucky Mammoth Cave
  • Mount Shasta, California
  • Manaus, Brazil
  • Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Iguazu Falls
  • Mount Epomeo, Italy
  • Himalayan Mountains, near Tibet
  • Mongolia and Chinese border
  • Rama, India
  • Pyramid of Giza
  • King Solomon’s Mines

These entrances, according to the stories surrounding them, are much smaller and lead to cities on the inner continent.

6 There Is a Second Sun Floating in the Middle

Is There a Secret City Inside Planet Earth?

Carl Sagan, in a 1996 interview, said, “We live on a hunk of rock and metal that circles a humdrum star” when asked to give a basic description of Earth. This simplistic world explanation miraculously works for both traditional Earth and Hollow Earth models.

But for Hallow Earth theorists, it’s more than a childish description of Earth’s core. They believe there is a sun located within the planet, bringing light and life to the inner world.

Depending on the account being read, the depiction of the sun changes. In some, it is described as a massive crystal; in others, it’s an electromagnetic battery. And in even other accounts, it’s a regular star, but there is a light and dark side.

What doesn’t change, though, is that this sun emits a soft, diffused light, providing illumination and energy to the inner world. Any of these could explain the intense heat that the earth’s core gives off. But one thing’s for sure. If there is a sun in the middle of Earth, we should probably start applying more sunblock on our feet.

5 Supreme Humans Live in Peace

Ancient Aliens: Terrifying Humanoids Emerge from Subterranean Realm (Season 18)

Answers to the question, “Who lives in the Hollow Earth?” vary from believer to believer. Some say that the lost tribes of Israel were led there by God to return in the last days. Others believe that Greenland’s lost Viking colonies found their way. Some even claim that Nazis fleeing World War II knew of the hidden gateways, using them to vanish and avoid punishment for their crimes.

However, most Hollow Earth theorists propose that the inner world is inhabited by an advanced civilization of supreme beings. These beings are believed to have evolved beyond the struggles and conflicts of our surface world, living in harmony and peace.

Dianne Robbins is a modern psychic and author who has published multiple books on the notion of a utopian society existing in the depths of our planet. She claims to be the “channel” (voice) for Adama, the High Priest and Ascended Master of Telos.

Through her direct connection to Adama, Dianne was able to learn that the people of Agartha were once humans who evolved to be immortal.

4 The Inner Continent Is Like the Garden of Eden

Mountains Taller Than Everest Found Deep Inside Earth

In 1811, Olaf Jansen entered Earth’s interior while sailing with his dad and lived among the “superhuman” giants for two years before returning to the surface. According to Jansen, the inner world is a pristine paradise comparable only to the legendary Garden of Eden. Lush vegetation, crystal-clear rivers, and an abundance of wildlife are all cared for by these 12-foot (3.7-meter) tall humans.

Within his story, Jansen mentions the “City of Eden” seated on the top of the tallest plateau. Fast forward 200 years to Berkeley researchers. They used seismic scans to map Earth’s interior and found mountain ranges within the mantle bigger than Mt. Everest. To a hollow earther, this is even more proof that the world’s interior has a diverse and inhabitable landscape.

3 Or Maybe There Are 100 Cities and Fewer Gardens

Pyramids Found Beneath Antarctic Ice | The UnXplained (Season 3)

While some describe a singular inner continent resembling the Garden of Eden with a single main city, others tell a very different story. The Kingdom of Agartha is said to be 100 or more cities connected to each other. And they link to the surface world through an extensive network of tunnels and caves—like a labyrinth below us.

These cities are believed to be incredibly advanced technologically and inhabited by enlightened beings. Like most Hollow Earth theories, there isn’t a popular consensus, so you’ll have to decide which version you believe in.

2 UFOs Come from Within

Ancient Aliens: Crystal City Discovered Under Antarctica (Season 18)

What if the reason there have been so many UFO sightings is because they’re coming from our home planet? Another modern believer, Rodney Cuff, claims that a significant number of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) originate from within Earth’s hollow interior. He claims these UFOs are piloted by members of the “superior” human race, who use them to monitor and observe our surface world.

But what are they watching us for? Cuff believes, “They want to keep an eye on us and stop us from starting a nuclear war.” Knowing we’re being watched is a disturbing thought, but at least they have good intentions.

1 The Guardians of the Planet


Step aside, Chris Pratt! According to Hollow Earth believers, we already have guardians of this galaxy. People sharing the same belief as Cuff think of the people living in the inner world as the guardians of the planet. And according to people claiming to have visited or lived among them, that’s exactly what they are.

The inner people use their profound knowledge and advanced technologies to protect Earth from external threats and preserve its delicate balance. Hollow Earth advocates often have a sense of reverence for the unseen forces that safeguard our planet from within. For environmentalists, this leads to the question, “If they’re meant to protect Earth, why are they letting humans destroy the planet?” The answer, according to many hollow earthers, is simple: The world’s governments are covering it up.

fact checked by Rachel Jones