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10 Lesser-Known Fascinating Facts about Our Celestial Neighbors

by Mikel Resaba
fact checked by Darci Heikkinen

Space. The final frontier. While that might sound like something Captain Kirk would say, the reality is that our solar system is chock-full of strange and wonderful secrets, many of which remain unknown to the average stargazer. Strap in and prepare for blastoff as we journey through ten lesser-known celestial wonders.

Related: Top 10 Giant Facts About the Dwarf Planets

10 Mars and Its Towering Volcano

Why Is Mars’ Olympus Mons So Big?

Of all the grandiose galactic getaways one might fantasize about, Mars tops the list. Why? Because who wouldn’t want to see a volcano that scoffs at our puny Earthly peaks? Enter Olympus Mons, the literal mountain of a volcano. Standing at an audacious 69,841 feet (21,288 meters), it’s nearly three times the height of Mount Everest. To put that into perspective, it’s as if Mother Nature, in a cosmic fit of one-upmanship, declared, “Oh, you think Everest is tall? Hold my asteroid!”

Olympus Mons didn’t just stop at being the tallest in the solar system. Oh no, this Martian marvel covers an area comparable to the size of Arizona! Its massive base would blanket a significant chunk of a country back on Earth.

But what’s its secret to being so big? Mars doesn’t have tectonic plate movement like Earth, so a volcano can keep spewing lava in the same spot, building itself into these mammoth proportions. So, if you’re ever feeling a bit too big for your britches, just remember: Mars has a volcano that might make our entire planet feel a tad inadequate.[1]

9 Mercury’s Freezing Cold Poles

Mercury Is So Hot, It’s Making Ice

Ah, Mercury, that solar front-runner sitting closest to the Sun. One would imagine this sun-kissed orb would be toasting marshmallows day in and day out. And indeed, its daytime temperatures can scald a pizza in seconds. However, here’s the twist in our celestial tale: Mercury is also the proud owner of some seriously frigid real estate.

You see, this tiny planet lacks a substantial atmosphere to distribute heat. Hence, while areas in direct sunlight can get sizzling, parts of Mercury that are in permanent shadow, especially deep craters near its poles, have never seen the light of day—literally. In these darkened nooks and crannies, temperatures can plummet to a bone-chilling -370°F (-223.3°C), colder than a polar bear’s toenail.

So, if you ever fancied setting up a freezer business with the sun as your neighbor, Mercury’s poles might just be your ideal spot. Just remember to pack both your sunblock and wooly mittens. The solar system, as Mercury exemplifies, is full of splendid surprises.[2]

8 Europa’s Secret Ocean

Beneath Europa’s icy poker face lies a tantalizing secret: a vast, swirling ocean, possibly twice the volume of all Earth’s waters combined. But here’s the twist—it’s hidden underneath a shell of ice that’s miles thick! It’s like discovering your quiet neighbor has a bustling nightclub in their basement.

And what’s even more intriguing? This subterranean dance floor might just be hosting life’s party. Scientists are all aflutter, wondering if “Europans” are grooving down there. Talk about deep-sea (or deep-space?) disco![3]

7 Saturn’s Singing Rings

What does Saturn sound like from space?

In the vast cosmic concert hall of our solar system, Saturn, the celestial maestro, conducts a symphony that’s truly out of this world. While one might be inclined to believe that space is eerily silent, Saturn’s rings beg to differ. Thanks to the Cassini spacecraft, which played the role of an interstellar audio engineer, we’ve discovered that Saturn’s rings produce an array of hauntingly beautiful sounds.

These ethereal tunes arise from the interactions of countless icy particles within the rings, creating a cosmic orchestra only Saturn could muster. It’s almost as if the planet took a cue from Earth’s vinyl records, with grooves not of vinyl but of ice and rock, playing melodies for anyone—or any probe—with the means to “listen.” Next time you glance up at the night sky, give a nod to Saturn, the universe’s most unexpected DJ.[4]

6 Venus: Our Toxic Twin

Venus – Earth’s Lost Twin

Ah, Venus! At first glance, she might seem like Earth’s glamorous twin sister. Both almost the same size and often shining brilliantly just after sunset or just before sunrise, it’s easy to think she’s merely Earth’s slightly more radiant counterpart. But beneath that glowing facade lies a toxic personality. Think Earth has some bad days?

Try an atmosphere that’s 96.5% carbon dioxide, complete with clouds of sulfuric acid that make even the worst Earthly storm seem like a mere drizzle. And if you’re imagining a nice, breezy day on Venus, think again. With surface temperatures hot enough to melt lead, it’s best to leave your picnic plans on Earth.

Indeed, while Venus might sparkle in the night sky, she’s a classic example of “looks can be deceiving.” Don’t be lured by her luminous charm; she’s got a fiery temper![5]

5 Neptune’s Supersonic Winds

The Planet With Supersonic Winds | The Planets | Earth Science

Neptune, the deep blue gem of our solar system, is not just a sight for sore Earthly eyes; it’s the ultimate thrill-seeker’s paradise. Why, you ask? How about winds that whoosh at breakneck speeds that make Earth’s fiercest hurricanes feel like a gentle summer breeze? Yep, Neptune’s wild and wooly winds can reach speeds of up to 1,500 mph (2,414 km/h).

To put that into perspective, while a cheetah might be the fastest land animal, reaching up to 60 mph (96.6 km/h), it would seem downright slothful compared to Neptune’s gusts. Forget wind-surfing; if you could withstand Neptune’s intense atmospheric pressure and freezing temperatures, you’d be in for wind-surfing 2.0!

Alas, until we perfect our extreme space tourism packages, we’ll have to admire Neptune’s supersonic winds from a safe and much less windy distance here on Earth.[6]

4 Titan’s Liquid Methane Lakes

What If You Could Swim in Titan’s Lakes?

On Saturn’s moon Titan, you might just need to swap your beach towel for a thermal blanket. While we Earthlings are blessed with serene water lakes perfect for summer dips, Titan offers a more, let’s say, “chill” experience. This enigmatic moon boasts the singular honor of being the only celestial body, besides Earth, to have persistent liquid on its surface.

But don’t pack your swimsuit just yet! Instead of refreshing H[2]O, Titan’s lakes and rivers gush with liquid methane, ensuring a frosty reception for any would-be swimmers. Think of it as the universe’s quirky take on a beach vacation—all the beauty minus the sunburn.

Who knew the cosmos had such a sense of humor? But before planning your next extraterrestrial getaway, remember: No SPF can protect you from freezing methane.[7]

3 The Ever-Storm of Jupiter

NASA Finally Shows What’s Inside Jupiter’s Great Red Spot

Jupiter’s Great Red Spot isn’t your typical weather forecast hiccup; it’s the granddaddy of all storms! It’s like Jupiter hosted a storm party four centuries ago, and the Great Red Spot is the guest that just won’t leave.

This gigantic tempest could swallow Earth whole with room to spare, making our worst hurricanes look like gentle breezes. Swirling for at least 400 years, one has to wonder if Jupiter’s storm is aiming for some cosmic longevity record.

And while its reddish hue might suggest it’s blushing from all the astronomical attention, scientists are still scratching their heads over the exact cause of its vibrant color. Either way, the Great Red Spot sure knows how to make a lasting impression in the vastness of space.[8]

2 Pluto’s Heart of Ice

Pluto Really Is a Weird Place! These Are the Strangest Things Found on Its Icy Surface

In the far reaches of our solar system, Pluto, once the ninth planet but now lovingly referred to as a dwarf planet, harbors a romantic secret: a gigantic, heart-shaped glacier. Named Tombaugh Regio, in honor of Pluto’s discoverer Clyde Tombaugh, this icy formation is not just a cosmic Valentine’s Day card.

Spanning a width of about 1,000 miles (1,609 kilometers), it’s made up of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane ice. Now, while this might sound like the ingredients list for an extraterrestrial cocktail, it’s actually a testament to Pluto’s cold and complex surface. The heart’s left lobe, Sputnik Planitia, is believed to be a massive impact basin filled with this iced concoction.

Interestingly, this “heart” might be hiding an underground ocean! The next time someone claims space is emotionless, just remind them: Even distant Pluto wears its heart on its sleeve—or rather, its surface.[9]

1 Uranus Rolls on Its Side

Why is Uranus On Its Side? | The Planets | Earth Science

When one thinks of planets, visions of majestic orbs serenely orbiting the sun often come to mind. And then there’s Uranus, the solar system’s off-kilter misfit. Rather than a regal spin akin to a top, Uranus prefers to roll around like a malfunctioning bowling ball that’s had one too many intergalactic cocktails.

With an axial tilt of a whopping 98°, Uranus essentially orbits the Sun on its side as though it’s perpetually trying to take a cosmic nap. Scientists speculate this unconventional posture might be the aftermath of a celestial smackdown: a collision with an Earth-sized object long ago.

The result? A planet that appears to be in a perpetual state of rolling away from some embarrassing mishap. And while the rest of the solar system might raise a planetary eyebrow at this quirky behavior, Uranus remains unbothered, embracing its role as the oddball of our celestial family.[10]

fact checked by Darci Heikkinen