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Top 10 Hardest Languages to Learn

by Patrick Welsh
fact checked by Rachel Jones

Have you ever fancied yourself as a linguistic whiz, adept at juggling many languages? Maybe you speak multiple languages with ease. But have you tried learning any of the top ten most challenging languages for non-native speakers?

These ten languages aren’t the language for a lingual hobbyist but linguistic beasts who are not easily discouraged! Interested yet? Let’s jump right in and learn why each offers a special tongue twister.

Related: 10 Extraordinary Languages That Do Not Involve Speaking

10 Mandarin Chinese

Learn Chinese for Beginners | Beginner Chinese Lesson 1: Self-Introduction in Chinese Mandarin 1.1

Mandarin Chinese is a language so vast and intricate that it leaves many feeling like they’re solving a never-ending puzzle! Before we can even talk about how verbally challenging this behemoth is, we must talk about writing it.

Mandarin’s writing system has thousands of unique characters to memorize; it will either break your brain or you’ll find your zen in the flowing character style.

If writing in Mandarin didn’t pose enough of a challenge for you, now we can discuss the challenges of speaking it. First, the grammar is an entirely different beast when compared to English and other Western languages. With no articles and a unique sentence structure, you might find constructing a sentence the same as building an Ikea desk with no hardware.

And to top it all off, Mandarin has four different tones that can completely alter a word’s meaning. You could end up saying someone is ugly when you meant smelly. Neither is great, but one is obviously going to hurt more.

This is one language you might want to ditch language apps and learn from a native tutor instead.

9 Arabic

The ARABIC Language (Its Amazing History and Features)

Arabic is a Semitic language that originated in the Arabian Peninsula and is spoken by over 400 million people. It is the official language of 26 countries and has a rich cultural and historical significance.

So why is this language spoken by over 400 million people so difficult to master? The simple answer is variations. There are a lot of Arabic dialects, and each can differ significantly in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar.

Additionally, the writing system offers challenges like flowing from right to left. While that may be simple enough to master, the language also adds letters that can look different depending on their position in a word, with vowels often going incognito mode. Soon it can feel like you are decoding secret messages. And, like most languages, there’s the proverbial cherry on top of grammar. Arabic is no exception; it is full of intricate and intriguing verb forms and noun declensions that add to its already difficult level.

8 Japanese

The Japanese Language

Japanese undoubtedly deserves a spot on this list. Over 128 million people speak Japanese, mainly in—you guessed it—Japan. It’s hard not to be captivated by its unique writing system. However, the social and cultural aspects of the language are what really make it a challenge.

First, let’s look at writing Japanese. It is an art form blending Chinese characters (kanji) with two syllabic scripts (hiragana and katakana). Memorization and context will be your friends when mastering this writing style.

The next challenge is one where practice and repetition are all that will help. Japanese takes sentence structure and flips it from what English speakers are used to. Verbs go at the end of a sentence, and getting used to this arrangement is no easy feat. Just remember subject, object, then verb, and you’ll do just fine.

Now, this is what really earns Japanese a spot on the list. Context is king, Japanese culture places a lot of importance on social context, and various levels of politeness and honorifics need to be used correctly. Choosing the wrong one can make or break a conversation, so you must stay on your toes.

7 Korean

Learn Korean in 20 Minutes – ALL the Basics You Need

At first glance, you might look at Korean and think it isn’t that different from Mandarin or Japanese, but you would be wrong. It’d be like someone from Texas meeting someone from deep in the Louisiana Bayou.

Three things make the Korean language a challenge:

  1. Grammar

  2. Homophones

  3. Phonetic writing

Korean can be a brain twister for non-native speakers, mostly because of its grammar. Word order, sentence structure, and verb endings are all things that lingual learners are going to have to master. And like Japanese, there is the honorific system, where vocabulary and verb forms change according to the speaker and listener’s status. Add double consonants, aspirated consonants, and vowel combinations that could leave English speakers tongue-tied.

Next up is a challenge that everyone learning English can relate to. Homophones! Korean is packed with homophones—words that sound the same but have different meanings. If you aren’t paying attention, you might say leg instead of bridge or fever when you meant ten.

The Hangul writing system might feel like learning to read and write all over again for English speakers. With phonetic letters representing sounds, the unfamiliar characters can be a tad overwhelming.

6 Finnish

The Finnish Language

Finnish is nothing short of a linguistic rollercoaster. It’s famous for its mind-bending grammar, intricate cases, and intriguing vowel harmony system. Oh yeah, and let’s not forget its extensive, compounding vocabulary!

Diving headfirst into Finnish grammar might feel like tackling a linguistic Rubik’s Cube, with 15 cases to juggle depending on sentence structure and context. Then there’s the tantalizing dance of Finnish vowels, ensuring they mesh just right within words, not to mention the ever-evolving consonant gradation. Just writing that sentence is making my head hurt.

But wait, there’s more! Finnish vocabulary loves borrowing from other languages, morphing those words to fit snugly into its unique grammar and pronunciation. It’s like a concussion where everyone looks familiar, but you just aren’t quite sure.

5 Hungarian

Learn Hungarian in 20 Minutes – ALL the Basics You Need

Hungarian is notorious for giving language learners a run for their money; it’s no wonder why this linguistic labyrinth made the cut.

Hungarian is an agglutinative language, meaning words can be assembled by stacking prefixes and suffixes like a Jenga tower. And if that’s not intimidating enough, try wrapping your brain around 18 different cases! In English, there are 3.

Also, Hungarian isn’t related to any Indo-European language, so good luck trying to find familiar vocabulary. Plus, Hungarian has some truly exotic vowel and consonant sounds that’ll have you practicing your pronunciation until the cows come home.

To master this one, you’ll have to focus on learning vocabulary in context and digging into the roots of Hungarian words.

4 Basque

Basque – A Language of Mystery

Europe’s oldest enigmatic language proudly stands alone, unrelated to any other known language on Earth. So you know it’s going to be a challenge.

The Basque language is basically an exclusive club. Since it has no linguistic relatives, you won’t find any cognates or familiar-sounding words to help you. You’ll just have to dive into the deep end to learn about the complex grammar, agglutinative structure, and peculiar pronunciation. But learning the language could mean a study abroad trip to an idyllic area between France and Spain.

3 Icelandic

Teaching Icelandic PART 1

You might’ve heard that Icelandic is a bit of a tough nut to crack, and you wouldn’t be wrong! This North Germanic language has held on to its Viking roots better than Thor grasps his hammer. Iceland’s isolation means the language is relatively unchanged, making it a challenge to learn but also a linguistic time capsule.

Icelandic’s grammar system is the main challenge. There are four different cases for nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, each with its own rulebook for declension. Plus, there are irregular verbs you have to remember.

Icelandic’s love affair with declension doesn’t end there, folks. Every noun comes with its own declension pattern, altering itself based on gender and case. You basically have to possess Loki’s silver tongue to wield Icelandic masterfully.

To top it all off, Icelandic vocabulary is like Odin’s treasure room. There are words derived from Old Norse, a plethora of compound words, and neologisms (that’s a fancy word for new words). But if you’re reading this, you probably already knew that.

2 Polish

Learn Polish in 30 Minutes – ALL the Basics You Need

Polish grammar is a wild ride! With seven cases for nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, each word’s ending shifts depending on its role in a sentence. And once you get to verbs, each can have up to six different tenses.

Pronunciation and inflection are the secret spice in this sausage. Your inflection modifies nouns, verbs, prepositions, and conjunctions. And you can’t flop on the pronunciation, either. Polish has a trove of unique sounds, like nasal vowels and consonant clusters, which can make non-native speakers tongue-tied.

1 Navajo

About the Navajo language

Navajo, a Native American language primarily spoken in the American Southwest, is a real test for language enthusiasts. Navajo grammar is like a puzzle, with prefixes and suffixes snapping together to form words. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg! The language also features a captivating tonal system where pitch and stress can transform the meaning of words and phrases.

If for some reason you doubt just how challenging a language Navajo can be, here is probably the greatest social proof you’ll ever find. During WW2, the Allies used Navajo code talkers to transmit sensitive information because the language was too hard to learn and be cracked by the enemy. So, yeah, good luck with that one.

fact checked by Rachel Jones