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History

The 10 Ages of Palestine

Jamie Frater . . . Comments

The Geographic region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea is known by many names – Palestine, Israel, the Holy Land, and Canaan. There has been a great deal of conflict in the area in recent years, primarily due to the fact that the Jews and the Muslims both lay claim to the land, with a third party (Christianity) also having a vested interest there. This list aims to explain the various “ages” of the region in a simple manner. From the beginings of man to the birth of the State of Israel, here are the 10 ages of Palestine/Israel/Canaan/The Holy Land.

1. The Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras 1 million – 5,000 BC

Paleohorse2

Human remains dating back as far as 500,000 BC have been found in this region. Stone, wood, and bone tools have been found in caves in the Bethlehem and Ramallah region. Mud brick square and rounded dwellings have also been found in the area, which are evidence of agricultural communities.

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2. The Chalcolithic Era and the Bronze Age 4,500 – 1,200 BC

Nefertiti1

A culture originating in Syria settled here during this period, bringing the use of copper and stone tools, giving the region a more urban fabric. By the early Bronze age, Canaanite cities were developing, enclosed in mud-brick walls for security. These city states had diplomatic relations with Egypt and Syria. Part of this urban civilization was destroyed around 2,300 BC – but no one knows why. By the middle bronze age, the area was influenced by nomadic groups settling in the hills, as well as the surrounding civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, and Syria. From this time we see the beginning of a belief in the afterlife. Military and political events from this time are recorded in cuneiform tablets known as the Amarna letters. This was the time of the rule of Akhnaten and his wife Nefertiti – the parents-in-law of Pharaoh Tutankhamen. By 1190 BC the Philistines arrived and began to merge with the local community – losing their identity over the forthcoming generations.

3. The Iron Age / Hebrew Occupation 1,200 – 330 BC

Iron-Age Roundhouse

Stylized pottery remains found in the area from this time, with styllzed birds, are the first evidence of the Philistine settlement. This is also the time that the Hebrews arrived; Biblical accounts state that they arrived from their years of slavery in Egypt, who was raised as a Prince in Egypt. Skeptics believe that the Hebrews arose from the local population. It is interesting to note that some modern writers believe that there is a connection between Akhnaten’s religious revolution in Egypt (in which he replaced the polytheistic religion with his own monotheistic religion) and Moses, who was raised as an Egyptian Prince and was the father of the Monotheistic religion of the Hebrews, Judaism. According to Biblical history, this was the time that the United Kingdom of Israel was established, with Saul as the first King in 1020 BC. in 1000 BC, King David (traditionally viewed as the author of the Psalms) reigned. It was during this period that the first Temple was established under King Solomon. By 930, the Kingdom was split in two – the Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel. During the 720’s, the Kingdom of Israel was destroyed by the Assyrians. This marks the beginning of the exile of the Hebrews. In 586, Jordan was destroyed by the Babylonians. From 538 BC, the Persian rule was fully established. Jews were allowed some autonomy in the state, and in this time they established the second temple in Jerusalem.


4. Classical Antiquity 333 BC – 640 AD

Pompeii Art Alexander Great

Under Alexander the Great, the Persian empire fell, leaving the region to be ruled by the Hellenes (Greeks). Because Alexander had no heirs, the land was split up amongst his generals. The Jews were in the region named Judah, or Judea, part of the land ruled by Ptolemy, a bodyguard of Alexander who became the first of many Ptolemies to rule Egypt as Pharoah, a dynasty that would last until 30 BC when the last Queen, Cleopatra VII killed herself with an asp after the conquest by Rome.

This marks the beginning of the Roman rule of the region. In 63 BC, General Pompey arrived, though it was not until the appointment of Herod the Edomite as King, that Roman rule was fully established. The Roman influence was strongly felt in the region during this time as Roman technology was introduced. The most important archaeological remnant from this time is Herodium, a fortress built by Herod the Great (the King most famous for demanding the execution of all young male newborn Jews in Bethlehem to prevent the birth of the Messiah). During this time, Jesus was born. Roman Palestine was, at this time, in disarray, and direct rule was imposed. The Jewish-Roman war occured and the second temple was destroyed. Roman Emperor Hadrian banished the Jews from the region. The Romans renamed the area from Judea to Syria Paelestina. Christianity was being practiced in secret.

In 330 AD, Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Catholicism and made it the official religion of Palestine. Palestine became the center of pilgrimages for Christianity. This marks the beginning of the Byzantine rule. Byzantine administration of Palestine was temporarily suspended during the Persian occupation of 614–28, and then permanently after the Muslims arrived in 634 AD, defeating the empire’s forces decisively at the Battle of Yarmouk in 636 AD.

5. Arab Caliphate Rule 638 – 1099 AD

Domeofrockext

In 638, for the first time, in 500 years, since the Roman ban on Jews, the Jewish people were allowed to return to Palestine. Omar Ibn al-Khattab, the first conquerer of Jerusalem to enter the city on foot, declared it to be a holy place in Islam. In 691, Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ordered that the Dome of the Rock be built on the site where the Islamic prophet Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have begun his nocturnal journey to heaven, on the Temple Mount. About a decade afterward, Caliph Al-Walid I had the Al-Aqsa Mosque built. It was under Umayyad rule that Christians and Jews were granted the official title of “Peoples of the Book” to underline the common monotheistic roots they shared with Islam. European Christian pilgrims visited and made generous donations to Christian holy places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem.

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6. Crusader Rule 1099 – 1187 AD

Crusaders

Under the European rule, fortifications, castles, towers and fortified villages were built, rebuilt and renovated across Palestine largely in rural areas. In July 1187, the Cairo-based Kurdish General Saladin commanded his troops to victory in the Battle of Hattin. Saladin went on to take Jerusalem. An agreement granting special status to the Crusaders allowed them to continue to stay in Palestine and In 1229, Frederick II negotiated a 10-year treaty that placed Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem once again under Crusader rule. In 1270, Sultan Baibars expelled the Crusaders from most of the country, though they maintained a base at Acre until 1291. Thereafter, any remaining Europeans either went home or merged with the local population.

7. Mamluk Rule 1270 – 1516 AD

Barb Mamluk-Cavalry-Bal

Palestine formed a part of the Damascus Wilayah (district) under the rule of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and was divided into three smaller Sanjaks (subdivisions) with capitals in Jerusalem, Gaza, and Safad. Celebrated by Arab and Muslim writers of the time as the “blessed land of the Prophets and Islam’s revered leaders,” Muslim sanctuaries were “rediscovered” and received many pilgrims. While the first half of the Mamluk era (1270 – 1382) saw the construction of many schools, lodgings for travellers (khans) and the renovation of mosques neglected or destroyed during the Crusader period,[84] the second half (1382 – 1517) was a period of decline as the Mamluks were engaged in battles with the Mongols in areas outside Palestine. In 1486, hostilities broke out between the Mamluks and the Ottoman Turks in a battle for control over western Asia. The Mamluk armies were eventually defeated by the forces of the Ottoman Sultan, Selim I, and lost control of Palestine after the 1516 battle of Marj Dabiq.


8. Ottoman Rule 1516 – 1917 AD

0005C05D

After the Ottoman conquest, the name “Palestine” disappeared as the official name of an administrative unit, as the Turks often called their (sub)provinces after the capital. Since its 1516 incorporation in the Ottoman Empire, it was part of the vilayet (province) of Damascus-Syria until 1660, next of the vilayet of Saida (Sidon), briefly interrupted by the 7 March 1799 – July 1799 French occupation of Jaffa, Haifa, and Caesarea. Still the old name remained in popular and semi-official use. Many examples of its usage in the 16th and 17th centuries have survived. During the 19th century, the “Ottoman Government employed the term Arz-i Filistin (the ‘Land of Palestine’) in official correspondence, meaning for all intents and purposes the area to the west of the River Jordan which became ‘Palestine’ under the British in 1922”. Ottoman rule over the region lasted until the Great War (World War I) when the Ottomans sided with Germany and the Central Powers. During World War I, the Ottomans were driven from much of the area by the United Kingdom during the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.

9. The British Mandate 1920 – 1948 AD

1943 Jewbrig Comndr Brig Ernset F Benjamin

In European usage up to World War I, “Palestine” was used informally for a region that extended in the north-south direction typically from Raphia (south-east of Gaza) to the Litani River (now in Lebanon). The western boundary was the sea, and the eastern boundary was the poorly-defined place where the Syrian desert began. In various European sources, the eastern boundary was placed anywhere from the Jordan River to slightly east of Amman. Under the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916, it was envisioned that most of Palestine, when freed from Ottoman control, would become an international zone not under direct French or British colonial control. Shortly thereafter, British foreign minister Arthur Balfour issued the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which laid plans for a Jewish homeland to be established in Palestine eventually. The British-led Egyptian Expeditionary Force, commanded by Edmund Allenby, captured Jerusalem on 9 December, 1917 and occupied the whole of the Levant following the defeat of Turkish forces in Palestine at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918 and the capitulation of Turkey on 31 October.

Formal use of the English word “Palestine” returned with the British Mandate, which enacted English, Hebrew and Arabic as its three official languages. Palestine was now the formal name of the entity in English and Arabic whilst Palestina was the formal name in Hebrew. The United Kingdom accepted a mandate for Palestine, but the boundaries of the mandate and the conditions under which it was to be held were not decided. Finally in early 1947 the British Government announced their desire to terminate the Mandate, and passed the responsibility over Palestine to the United Nations.

10. The UN Partition 1948 AD – Present

Un Partition Plan Palestine

On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly, with a two-thirds majority international vote, passed the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine (United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181), a plan to resolve the Arab-Jewish conflict by partitioning the territory into separate Jewish and Arab states, with the Greater Jerusalem area (encompassing Bethlehem) coming under international control. Jewish leaders (including the Jewish Agency), accepted the plan, while Palestinian Arab leaders rejected it and refused to negotiate. Neighboring Arab and Muslim states also rejected the partition plan. The Arab community reacted violently after the Arab Higher Committee declared a strike and burned many buildings and shops.

As armed skirmishes between Arab and Jewish paramilitary forces in Palestine continued, the British mandate ended on May 15, 1948, the establishment of the State of Israel having been proclaimed the day before (see Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel). The neighboring Arab states and armies (Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Transjordan, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army, and local Arabs) immediately attacked Israel following its declaration of independence, and the 1948 Arab-Israeli War ensued. Consequently, the partition plan was never implemented. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and neighboring Arab states eliminated Palestine as a distinct territory. With the establishment of Israel, the remaining lands were divided amongst Egypt, Syria and Jordan.

The result of these partitions in pictures

Tn 2007-09-20T152006Z 01 Nootr Rtridsp 2 Oukwd-Uk-Palestinians-Israel-Violence-1

Born-To-Kill-Israeli-Soldier

Bravepalestinian

Palestinians

Palestinians Are Killers Image2

Reem-Raiyshi-With-Son

Contributions: Wikipedia

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Jamie Frater

Jamie is the owner and chief-editor of Listverse. He spends his time working on the site, doing research for new lists, and collecting oddities. He is fascinated with all things historic, creepy, and bizarre.

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  • Cyn

    wow. i think this is the first time i’ve read such a timeline of events for this area. certainly puts modern day conflicts and issues into better context. yet i still have no opinion on the political implications. this complexity of its history just further justifies my not having an opinion. better that i just butt out. unfortunately that is not the consensus in my country. (America)

  • Cyn: That was the reason for writing the list – we all hear about the conflicts but no one really knows what the historical background is to it all. I learnt a huge amount doing the research for this one.

  • Cyn

    i’ve picked up bits and pieces over the years but to read it in sequence..thank you. this is a major reason i can not imagine my life w/out the internet…access to information. i can’t speak for elsewhere but here there is a definite bias in education, media and public discourse about the rest of the world…especially the Middle East. so any time i can step outside my culturally imposed stereotyping..its a good thing. to be able to verify information ..on my own..from sources outside my own country…to hear what the rest of the world thinks of my country…mere words can not express my gratefulness. i think its the only way for anyone to see beyond their own ‘front door’ w/ any hope of being open to new information.
    a major reason i’m so glad you’ve created this site too. gives me something to really think about.

  • Fe

    Sometimes I think we should give the people who covet Palestine Solomon’s Choice by way of Carthage: tell them all the buildings will be pulled down until not one brick still stands upon another, that the streams and rivers will be fouled and that the ground will be sewn with salt. The people who beg for the land to be spared, saying they will give up their claim to it as long as no harm comes to the land, will be the ones who will be allowed to stay. (The rest can go jump off a bridge.)

    I’m a pacifist, but even I can understand fighting and dying to preserve something, but these people aren’t preserving anything, they are just destroying.

  • Kelsi

    Thanks for this list. It hit me some time ago that this seemingly endless conflict is just another age that will pass, as all ages do. If you consider that religious extremists have almost never been successful or at least have never lasted very long once they had success is also encouraging considering the nature of the current conflict as I understand it. I will admit to being a little ignorant of the majority of the issues at stake though, but I perfer it that way I think, to keep my sanity. =p

  • Cyn: thanks – that is exactly what I hope to achieve with the lists :)

    Fe: Brilliant thinking :)

    Kelsi: While I do hope that the fighting ends – it is virtually impossible to see a way out of it (though I do like fe’s idea).

  • Justin Anthony Knapp

    “Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Catholicism?” That’s not exactly an accurate portrayal of Constantine’s conversion.

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  • x00x

    I learned a lot about this region’s history, its population, the many
    groups who came and went throughout the millenia and came
    away better for it.

    Perhaps the reason it was the least viewed list is because it was
    the least bit objective and balanced with an acerbic, objectionable
    political bent that seemed offensive and one-sided.

  • widow

    just one thing THANK YOU

  • widow: you are welcome! I enjoyed writing this list a lot.

  • ReMoter

    An excellent, interesting book on the topic is “The Source” by the late James Michener. It takes a single piece of land in the area undergoing an archeological dig, and tells a story about the people involved with each item uncovered, starting about 100,000 years ago and ending in about the 1970s. This book really makes the history come alive!

  • ReMoter: I have read that book and enjoyed it immensely! Thanks for mentioning it!

  • luckyaz

    i see you, dont think i dont!

  • stoner26

    wow i never knew that there were that many ages of palestine
    cheers you guys keep on writing good lists

  • ChaoticPython

    Bet you’ll get more hits now that you’re on Most Significant Listverse Lists.
    Glad I could help!

  • Ro

    The UN partition wasn’t fair. The Jews could’ve all lived in the USA, which was generous enough since then to give more funds to Israel than any other country.

  • Vera Lynn

    I did not know a lot of this history. Thank you for such an informational list. Very cool. History was not my forte, but as get older, I realize the importance it has.

  • The history of Palestine/Israel/Canaan/The Holy Land has always been a bit confused in my head. I knew of pieces here and there (the Hebrew occupation, the Crusader rule, the British mandate, and UN partitioning) but getting everything in the correct sequence was hard. This list helped; if I get confused again I’ll probably come back here and review it :-D

  • no_identity

    Hey guys why don’t you check out this history from the arab’s point of view for a change? i saw it, it’s quite interesting… Here is an arabic website about palestine’s full history:
    http://www.palestinehistory.com/index.php

  • zenith

    Palestine has has a very hectic, all over the place history. However, it’s still a very rich culture. It does put a lot of its modern day conflicts into better context for those who don’t know the country’s history very well.

    Great list.

  • QWERTY

    Hey could you not call it Palestine and something a bit more neutral perhaps? Even Canaan or Israelistine or something would be better.

  • FATSEXY

    It’s amazing that this one tiny spot on the earth has dictated the history of the entire planet.

  • TheOddball

    Well, you have to do a lot when you are the center of attention

  • PC

    I don’t think anyone will ever come up with a solution to Palestine now. There is too much bad blood between the Palestinians and the Israelis. The only way for peace to bloom is for two equal sized states which both sides agree on and a solution for Jerusalem. But I doubt that in 10 years, 20 years or even 100 years there will be peace in the Middle East.

  • joe v

    straight crack!!!

  • Copaface

    This list gets owned.

  • jum1801

    I am flabbergasted that this list contains objectively and historically false information. It purports to ignore the creation of the State of Israel, and instead substitute for it a mere proposal which was never approved or implemented.

    #1 on this list, “The UN Partition, 1948 to Present” contends that the UN Partition was and is valid. It is accompanied by a map which reflects territorial divisions which have never existed. This entry is grossly in error, as there was no UN partition plan: it was a proposal, never accepted by the Palestinians, and never implemented. It is therefore objectively incorrect, and very misleading, to claim that a plan, never accepted, remains in effect to this day.

    What occurred instead of the Partition was the creation of the State of Israel on May 15, 1948. Israel is a sovereign nation, recognized by all the countries of the world, is a member country of the United Nations, and has existed without interruption from 1948 to this day. The map accompanying this list, which incorrectly reflects boundaries never implemented, should be replaced by an accurate map which marks the boundaries of Israel.

    If there is the least interest here in factual and historical accuracy instead of political cant and propaganda, the # 1 “age” on this list should be renamed, “The State of Israel, 1948 to present”. In addition, the completely irrelevant photographs under the heading “The result of these partitions in pictures” should be removed. They are gratuitously partisan, highly polarizing, overtly propagandistic, are used to illustrate an event which did not occur, and serve no legitimate purpose related to “The Ages of Palestine”.

    • coolidge

      The creation of the State of Israel consisted of cleansing local Arab communities which had existed for over centuries. Remember Deir Yassin. Israel is nothing more than a military mechine holding on to its occupation of Arab land.

      In 1947, Palestine was not divided between Jews and Arabs in the same way, for example, the Cypriots where the Greeks largely live in one part and the Turks largely living in another separate part.

      The Arabs in Palestine were the overwhelming majority and they never got asked whether they were willing to part with the only homeland they knew. That homeland was stolen from them and now they are paying the price for refusing to surrender.

      The only justification for the creation of Israel in and on Palestine is because in the Bible, God had promised it to the Jews. How can that be fair ?

      The Arab fight for Palestine has nothing to do with religious extremism. It has to do with honor, dignity, life.

  • MacDimples

    Confirming what I’ve always thought, that Jerusalem is the true capital of the world as it has come to influence all eras of human history across the world. Very good work.

  • One True Owner’s Descendant

    How hurtful of you to post such a factually distorted list. Some lists seem to have their intellectual integrity scrutinized more vigorously than others. Anti-Judaism is more casually accepted than other forms of prejudice. This list is an instance of the casual acceptance of disrespect for Jewish cultural integrity by the majority of the Gentile/Muslim world.

    As the items are written in a pseudo-intellectual manner, those not familiar with the broad perspective of history regarding Israel are, sadly, misled by this type of subterfuge. This is a hateful person’s rendition of historical distortion.

    Is this website a willing participant in helping to propagate anti-Jewish revisionism?

    • Sue

      Well, duh, yeah. Didn't you notice that the era of the Jewish Kingdoms is listed as "Hebrew Occupation", while all others who have controlled the land "rule" it? And the grandeur of those early kingdoms, that ruled for centuries, is represented by a primitve hut, as if the Jews were primitive tribesmen who overrran the place until "real" people could come back to rule it? I can't believe I"m a reading all these comments and no one has made note of that. The *obvious* purpose of this list is to deligitimze the Jewish history in the land as much as can be done, without actually denying they were there.

      There are other misrepresentations on this page, notably treating the Partition as if it somehow represented actual borders, rather than just a rejected proposal, but that is by far the worst.

      Sad, sad thing, that in the face of modern politics, arab propagandists cannot even acknowledge one of the greatest kingdoms in the region as anything other than a temporary tribal invasion.

  • One True Owner’s Descendant

    jfrater:

    Your “research” is an admission of your prejudice. You speak of facts the way Rush Limbaugh, Bill O’Reilly and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad speak of facts. How unfortunate that a bright person like you is such a hater.

  • Kabbi

    Once upon a time, i was a supporter of israel. Then as i dug deeper, i realised that israel was also involved in far more severe atrocities. Then as i dug deeper with time and read more, i realised that both can solve this issue in a day, without letting their history or murders committed both by both sides interfere. Both r responsible. And here, i loved to learn about th 10 ages. I read ‘th source’ and its a beautiful book with vivid description:-).

    Nice list. And informative too.

  • Ploni Almoni

    One True Owner’s Descendant
    is right, you only publish the UN partition and then show all these photos that “are a result of the partition” It is misleading. First of all the UN partition was never implemented because the Arabs did not accept it therefor it is just as relevant as the Balfour declaration, the Peel commission, or the white papers as these were all solutions that Arabs did not accept. It is misleading to your readers that you claim the conflict is a result of the UN partition… When Zionist came to build up the country Israel, arabs flocked to it as immigrants from around the region because there were new economic opportunities. Arabs were SUPPORTIVE of zionists for many many years so and you are claiming that the conflict is based on a UN partition?!! The conflict is based on a fundamentalist WAHABI interpretation of Islam and nothing more. Racism against Jews and so on…

  • Ploni Almoni

    Even the words are biaed, you use the words Hebrew Occupation but all the other headers are using RULE instead of occupation… mmmhh that is funny since Hebrews were the only ones that ever had independent rule and not treating the land as some occupied territory. Arabs could have invested everything into building the country up but it was only considered a small territory and they didnt, Jews are the only people that put 100% of effort and finance into building up a country there, Jews were there when the forefathers of Arabs were drinking wine and burring their daughters alive in the desert. Jews were ALWAYS a majority in every Jewish city and even in Jerusalem they were the majority until the 20’s when the Arabs burned them out of their homes in antiJewish riots. You leave out ALL these important facts, you are iether brainwashed and ignorant or you are intentionally trying to mislead people

    • coolidge

      Excuse me ? Jews had spent two millenium out of Palestine. The only community which had continuously inhabited Palestine after the Jewish dispora was the Arabs. They have had spent over a thousand years living there.

      They had built a civilization in Palestine, cities and towns etc. To suggest that they had behaved like marauders and squatters without love for this land is to boldly yet foolishly deny the facts.

      Tell me, during which time when Palestine was already an Arab land when Jews were in the majority ? Was Jews in the majority in the 18th century ? Or perhaps 19th century or early 20th century ? Or perhaps in 1947 ? Which would have justified the creation of Israel ?

  • electrocosmic

    Informative list!

  • issyezza

    Great list,

    Why is it that, if one talks about Palestine/Israel there always some people who think that it's appropriate to respond with "you didn't mention this, so you must be an anti-Semite" this always kills off any normal debate. just stop it.

    • Sue

      Cause the things not mentioned are the foundation of the Jewish ties to this land, so their exclusion is deliberate political statement that they reallly haven't got one. They never just lived here, they were only Occupiers, even 2500 years ago. Or did you think that was just accidental?

      The Jewish Kingdoms were the *only* kingdoms ever to exist in the Holy Land; all other rulers listed came from somewhere else and just counted this patch of turf among their many possessions. That's kinda glossed over too, don't you think?

      Anyone who uses htis page as a basis for understanding the middle eastern conflict will have some gaping holes in their understanding…but that's what was clearly intended.

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  • VPayne

    Accurate enough nice job

  • One True Owner’s Descendant

    Hmmm…accurate enough. Well, I suppose a person could say that comfortably if the “somewhat” inaccurate information isn’t about them and theirs.

    Anyway Herr Payne, the two salient points are 1) it is inaccurate. An opinion of the degree of inaccuracy is subjective; 2) The author and those that wrote in support of the article simply don’t like Jews.

    Delude yourselves all you want into thinking that your “dislike” of Jews doesn’t color your perception of us. You hate, you blather. Your opinions are deviod of fact or reason.

  • Jawad

    to number 37 id just like to say one thing..
    that kind of attitude and mentality whereby you take on an immediately defensive (juxtaposed with) condescending (specifically the part where you psychoanalyze the person who made the list) stance really speaks volumes, and i see it every time i have this discussion with someone who is fiercely pro-Israel, or i shud say pro-Zionist.
    now look, i agree the list maker left a lot of stuff out, but what do you expect? Im sure this took him a while as it is, and its pretty interesting, pretty cool little thing here. The fact that its not thorough enough to make you feel secure is not a statement about the listmaker and his politics/beliefs. Its a statement about you.
    I am Palestinian and fiercely patriotic. But that doesnt mean I have a problem with you by default, in any way shape or form.
    I do however have a problem with your mentality, because along with being annoying and counterproductive for yourself, its destructive to the conversation.

    Look… id love to get into this further (and you dont know me, i really really would), but im just gonna leave it with one fact.

    It is undisputed (and you can look that up yourselves) that David Ben Gurion planned with his committee (and with support of the British Mandate officers)
    his masterpiece of a scheme (Called Plan Dalet, or Plan D.) in which he outlined step by every measly step of the forcible (emphasis on forcible) expulsion and/or extermination of the “native population” (as he himself, the great ben gurion called us).
    Zionism became and remains today a COLONIAL project.

    Now with that in mind… why bicker over your insecurities, “Mr. One true owner’s descendant”?

    Dont you think the more significant question to be asked is something along the lines of why is it this colonization has not ended yet? Why (since you’re there to stay) can’t we start living together? So that the 90 year old widow with the title and deeds to her home on the shores the galilee can see her home (or whats left of it) just one last time, and hundreds of thousands like her.

    I don’t hate you for being Jewish, I hate you for being a Zionist, but hey fuck it, id still give you a hug, you could use one

    • Sue

      It isn't undisputed fact and you can't look it up anywhere in a reputable source.

      The creation of false history, by repeated references to documents and events that dont' exist, has become a daily event in matters pertaining to this region, especially when anyone wiht alaptop can enter them into Wikipedia. Never take a statement like this at face value.

  • Oaeneo

    You may not choose your neighbors but I think we are supposed to try and love them anyway. I’ll take a hug!

  • Nazreel

    And to think the Prince of Peace was born there…

  • nicoleredz3

    @Nazreel: (40)

    Sad, isn’t it…

  • adam

    I don't understand how other commentators see this as anti-semetic…that term is thrown around so much it is starting to lose it's meaning.

    Thanks to the author for an interesting article!

  • mental eastern

    Where the fuck is the detailed account of the Cannanites? and why didnt you mention the fact those Hebrews were mentally ill, after they heard their god telling them to kill Cannanites and steal Canaan. One True Owners Descendant… ZioNazi scum like you get so fired up with your fairytale terror tactics, he didn’t even mention how HEBREWS STOLE LAND FROM THE CANNANITES. and he didnt even go into any detail of the cannanites. I guess zionazis wont be happy till they also take over the Euphrates Tigris and egypt. GOD DAMN KHAZARI

    • Sue

      Recent genetic studies have proven that Ashkenazi Jews in fact have the same MIddle Eastern genetic markers as Sephardic Jews, and surprisingly small input from the Khazars, or any other Eastern European source. And the majority of European genetic material is on the female side, indicating that among Jews, as with Muslims, men sometimes took wives from outside the faith….but there was no great influx of European DNA. The markers just ain't there. Sorry to burst that particular bubble.

      I do find it curious that anyone descended from Muslim converts has a birthright to Mecca, but being descended from Jewish converts means you are not really connected to Jerusalem. Let's have one set of rules, guys.

  • fasterthanu

    Israel is a TERRORIST state

  • Prayera

    I like the list: it's clear and straight to the point. However, I noticed one small error: when mentioning emperor Constantine the Great (under 4. Classical Antiquity), you say he converted to Catholicism. Actually, Catholicism didn't exist until 1054, when Christianity got divided into Catholics and Orthodox. So Constantine simply converted to Christianity. :)
    (I am only mentioning this for the correctness of the information)

  • notajew

    can we just kill us some arabs and get this over with, ya'll yeeeehaw

  • YahwehdefendIsrael

    This 10 list is the most Arab-biased , anti-semetic thing I've read in awhile.
    Not even the least bit subtle. The Israelis desired to live in peace and the Arab countries use refugees that they refused to accept as pawns in a desire to exterminate her. Not gonna happen. The Arab street is morally bankrupt, they don't want peace, they are willing to destroy the lives of those in Gaza just to inflict pain on innocent civilians. Chain your dog long enough and he will get angry at everyone. Israel has produced a miracle in the desert and defeated every army sent against her since '48. Begin to wonder oh Arab that you are on the wrong side o history? You should. Listserve should be ashamed for publishing this biased drivel.

    • Ughhhh

      lol your comment is sad and terribly misinformed.

      To be fair, every country has a right to defend itself. Israel has the right to exist because it is the nature of the world. Land is lost and gained, people move in people move out. Deal with it.
      But to what cost does a country need to "protect" itself? Using phosphorus based incendiaries? Causing burn trauma to unarmed civilians?
      How many UN reports are filed each year against a sad misuse of military prowess?

      Israel deserves the right to exist, but its citizens and these people commenting need to realize that it is not anti-semetic to believe that a country crosses a moral line with the use of its military.

    • A Brother

      Can you, or someone, please, for the love of god, explain to me what "anti-semetic" means? I seem to get the idea that anti-semetic automatically means jews. I just don't get where the hell that originated from? Isn't "Sem" or "Shem" the father of the middle-eastern peoples? Also, jews, and not all of them, come from Israel, also known as prophet Jacob. Prophet Jacob is the son of Prophet Isaac, who happens to be the brother of, guess who, Prophet Ismael, whom the jews refer to as the Arab's father. Both Prophets Ismael and Isaac were sons of the Prophet Abraham, or Ibrahim. Oh wait, does that mean arabs and jews, come from the same father? So how come the term anti-semetic is only referred to jews and not arabs, since they're COUSINS?

      I literally hate that word. It's just wrong and full of misconception.

      Arabs and jews are one. Whether you like it or not, we came from the same father, the one prophet Abraham, or Ibrahim. How about we start living together as brothers for gods sake? And for once stop being too defensive and relating to the tiniest things that are barely even against you, even a list like this that is not even in the slightest against you, as anti-semetic.

      Since we're brothers, and I couldn't care less whether you like or accept me as a brother or even refer to your brother as a Gentile, every time any one of you shouts "anti-semetic", just remember it also means anti-arab as well ;)

      Shalom, Brother.

  • Sur

    "Anti-semetic" means hating Jews, when it really refers to Semites, just like "Islamophobia" is used for "hating Muslims", when in fact it only refers to *fearing* Muslims. English evolves, and such phrases develop meanings that were not originally intended; denying that process is pointless. Don't beat your head against a wall over it, there are far bigger issues

  • sue

    BTW, the Philistines were *neighbors* of the Jewish Kingdoms, not co-inhabitants. The Jewish kingdoms fought border wars with them; they were not an internal population. When the Jews were exiled from Judea after the Bar Kochba revolt, the Romans renamed the land "Palestinia" after the Philistines as a sign of conquest and contempt, because they had been the enemies of the Jews. That is where the name "Palestine' comes from.

    The description of the Philistines and "Hebrew Occupiers" arriving simultaneously in that territory is disengenuous at best, and highly misleading. Par for the course, for this article.

  • very subjective list. It is clear that this is a pro-Israeli list. When Ghandi was asked about the Israel-Palestine conflict he said, "Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs… Surely it would be a crime against humanity to reduce the proud Arabs so that Palestine can be restored to the Jews partly or wholly as their national home." You can't just put some random EUROPEAN born jewish population into an Arabic state and expect the people living there to be fine and dandy, just because the Europeans themselves were so anti-semitic, they had to get rid of their so called "jewish" problem instead of developing tolerance and acceptance for their religion. Prior to the Israel – Palestine issue, the jews that were living there were being treated normally, there was no evident antisemitism with Arabs.

  • Ica

    the arabs (muslims and christians) are already there, the jews are already there, give peace a chance. even IF the arabs/jews came into the land later, that is no excuse for fighting and killing each other. since there was an example of them coexisting peacefully (#5), that means there is hope that they can coexist peacefully once more. someday..sigh….

    BTW, why is US giving so much money to israel when its own citizens are facing unemployment of 9,4%?
    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/geoffrey-wawro/no-bhttp://original.antiwar.com/roberts/2009/11/11/amhttp://www.bls.gov/

  • Witness

    Thank you for sharing this valuable information. However, there is one point that must ALWAYS remain very clear to everyone who seeks the truth during these conflicts: Rupert Murdoch, the man who controls 60% of the world’s media, the man who can single-handedly change the opinion of the masses, has chosen a side during these conflicts, and that is the side of Israel. Not of the Jewish people, but of the State of Israel. “Israel” does not represent a people, it represents an ideal. This ideal (Zionism) is rejected by millions of Jews who rarely, if ever, have their voices heard. Those who oppose the state of Israel are labelled as “anti-semite”, or, in the case of Jewish communities, “self-hating Jews”.
    If you have any doubts about this information, do your own research. But always keep in mind the sources of your information, and who they might be influenced by…

  • DJ

    The last picture seems like it should go on the awkward family photos website.

    • Your-daddy

      The message from the photo is to die for your country you Morón

  • Alice C. Linsley

    Generally accurate, but missing imporant details about the Natufians, the Dedanites, the Joktanite clans, and the Kushites. The Hebrews were a Horite confederation until after the Babylonian exile. We can only speak of Jews after about 560 BCE.

  • me

    For number eight you only give credit to the English beating the Ottomans, not the Arab Revolt. The English were more of a guiding force than the brunt of the attacks, Lawrence of Arabia probably being the most well known, who served mainly as a strategist and liaison. Sharif Hussein bin Ali and the Hashemite family deserves as much credit as the allied forces in the current shape of the Middle east.

  • Sharlo

    what a bias shallow and inaccurate description of historical events..
    now how can i read about events i don’t know about in this site, and be confident about its accuracy?

    the first Jewish exile was in the destruction of the kingdom of Judah (why Jordan?) by the Babylonians not the destruction of the kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians.
    the Persian king allowed Jews to return from to Judah.
    where they encountered people who were settled there by the Assyrians, called Samaritans.
    and there was similar conflict between Jews and Samaritans back then as there is now with the Arabs.. of which many of them came to Palestine only in the 19th and 20th centuries with the powers renewed interest in the region.

    and what is the purpose of the last segment in the article to show random pictures from demonstrations and terror attacks and headline it with “the results of the partition plan”..
    that’s just simplistic tabloid material.

    in any case the conflict between Arabs and Jews is not because of the partition plan, its because the lack of any partition plan.
    the Arabs refuse any partition, ever!

  • Ronk

    “In 330 AD, Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Catholicism and made it the official religion of Palestine.”

    Wrong on both counts. Constantine was a life-long polytheistic pagan and sun-worshipper, who converted to Christianity only when he was on his death-bed in 337. And even then he was baptised into the Arian heresy (which denies that Jesus is God). He never became a Catholic. In fact he spent many years using more or less forceful means to promote Arians and Arianism over Catholcis and Catholicism.

    Catholicism did not become the official religion of the Roman Empire until half a century after Constantine’s death. (And even then this didn’t give Catholics any special rights which people of other religions didn’t have.)

  • Seth McAvoy

    It isn’t Jew vs. Muslim. It’s Zionit vs. Arab (Christian and Muslim)

  • Alice C. Linsley

    See this: http://jandyongenesis.blogspot.com/2012/07/petra-reflects-horite-beliefs.html

    It is about historical realities that neither Zionists nor Islam wish to recognize.

  • mifenglove

    Name

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